In Maryland, if an officer pulls over a vehicle and suspects that the driver was driving while impaired or under the influence of drugs or alcohol, the officer will ask the driver to take a variety of tests. Drivers can refuse all of these tests. Except for the chemical breath test in the police station, drivers will not be penalized for refusing to take these tests.
Maryland is an implied consent state. This means that if a driver was lawfully stopped and detained by an officer, and the officer had probable cause to believe the driver was impaired, at the request of the officer, the driver must either take a chemical breath test at the police station or have their license suspended.
The suspension is an administrative penalty that is not related to any criminal penalties that a driver may face. The suspension will begin 45 days after the incident, unless the driver requested an administrative hearing within 10 days of being charged. If the driver requests an administrative hearing within 10 days of being charged, their license will be suspended on the day of their administrative hearing. (A driver can choose to have their license suspended earlier.) Drivers have up to 30 days to request an administrative hearing, but their license will still be suspended after day 45 if they did not request the administrative hearing by day 10. Rather than facing a suspension, drivers that refuse to take a breath test can keep their license if they enter into the ignition interlock program. However, except for a potential exception for work provided vehicles, the driver will only be able to drive vehicles equipped with an ignition interlock system. (For more information on the ignition interlock system, click here.)
When a driver refuses to take the in-station breath test, an officer should inform the driver that their license will be suspended for refusing to take the test. The officer should also tell the driver what happens if the driver takes a chemical test and has above a 0.08 or above a 0.15 blood alcohol content. Prior to suspending a driver’s license, the officer will have the driver sign a DR-15 form. This form advises drivers of their administrative rights. The police officer should read the DR-15 to the driver or play a recording of someone reading the DR-15. An officer’s failure to follow these steps might be considered misleading.
If a driver can prove in an administrative hearing that the officer gave misleading information or induced the driver into refusing the test, the driver will only be without his or license for a short time – the period between the administrative hearing and going to the Motor Vehicle Administration to get a new driver’s license. Licenses are confiscated at the administrative hearing, so drivers leave without their license.